a circumstantibus altare tantum audiatur” (no. We ought to thank the bishops, prevosts, and choristers who have opposed this barbarous mixture, and use our utmost endeavours for the progress and perfection of an art which is very far from the point at which it has been placed, that these valuable remains of antiquity may be faithfully transmitted to those who have sufficient talents and authority to enrich the modern system by the addition of them.”, [The Other Liturgical Arts: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Vestments]. The actions of offering, the solemn fraction, the general communion, and even the rite of the pope’s communion ad sedem, underline this concept of Eucharistic assembly (ecclesia). Nevertheless, we have found the opinions of three learned foreigners, two Italians and one Spaniard.  Andrieu, Ordines Romani, vol. He was born in 1805, when most of the chapter system was already completely destroyed, so would not have heard most of what he is describing in actual liturgical use. He is represented not. , Vatican II’s constitution on the sacred liturgy, in the often-lauded paragraph number 116: “The Church acknowledges Gregorian chant as specially suited to the Roman liturgy: therefore, other things being equal, it should be given pride of place in liturgical services.” This eminent, even primary place is not only due to its historical precedence, but above all to the Church’s recognition of the unequaled intrinsic value of this chant, inspired by the Holy Spirit, which constitutes the model for the development of other forms of music and liturgical chant.  Our attempts to acquire this collection have so far been unfruitful. I mean the errors in metric quantity, especially in the music of the hymns; the phrases mixed up by the tenor and flow of the music, which should have been marked out as they are by the natural sense of the text; other phrases maladroitly split up; others maladroitly left hanging; chants utterly opposed to the spirit of the words: grave, when the words called for a light melody; a rising melody, when it should have been falling; and so many other irregularities, almost all caused by a lack of attention to the text. He later became Archbishop of Albi and a Cardinal. If out of archeologism and excessive love of the past the old ossified forms had been fixed in place—i.e., the psalm without refrain and the responsorial psalm—this would have impeded any evolution and progress of liturgical chant, and any chance of reaching higher forms of elaboration and complexity. 107). The deacon charged to read the gospel receives the evangelary, removes it from its sealed case, finds and marks the pericope of the day, then consigns the book to an acolyte who, accompanied by a sub-deacon sequens (i.e., dedicated in a special manner to the service of the pope), carries it to the altar on which the sub-deacon places it with certain signs of honor (nos. OR I does not mention any chant to accompany the pontifical recessus, the liturgical significance of which was lesser in relation to the introitus, a veritable entry into the heavenly Jerusalem. The Editio medicea of Gregorian chant is published, rewriting the old modal chant according to the contemporary aesthetic style. One can well imagine the fate suffered by architecture, the most divine of the liturgical arts, in this unhappy age. When the African peasant works he sings following a natural ternary rhythm, with this third beat that recalls the foot firmly planted in the soil and dust of our earth.  French theologian, one-time Curé of Calais,  Projet d’un nouveau Bréviaire, p. 189. 123). The first judgement we shall produce is—would you believe it?—Foinard himself; he is all the less suspect.  He is not entirely correct, since we know that chant was original rhythmic.  He intones another chant with ample melismatic vocals, exulting, in the word of St. Augustine, in the alleluia chant. e, facilitates the chant, and deepens its relation to God.” And it is true that the kora’s ternary rhythm, which induces a light swaying motion, gives the psalms life, permits them to express joy or sorrow, creates the desire to sing, to praise…sounds of a crystalline purity, with a translucent lightness, which leads us to the silence of adoration. Alas! Hence the rabble of people who put themselves forward to compose the chants.  See the seminal remarks of Michel Andrieu, Les Ordines Romani du haut moyen âge, 5 vol., Spicilegium Sacrum Lovaniense 11, 23, 24, 28, 29 (Louvain: Peeters, 1931–1961) vol. Now, during the distribution of communion, the scola is occupied with chanting; its members being incapable of communicating during the celebration, they therefore do not offer the material for consecration. . A silence where God lets himself be seen in the flashing rays of his Glory through the beautiful rituals of the liturgy of the Church on the road toward her consummation. They borrowed from Serbian, Bulgarian, and other Orthodox chants and standardized both the notation and teaching method, mixing them together to form a distinctive Kyivan chant style. Therefore, musical rhythm tends to disclose an undeniable reality: the presence or absence of contemplation. Yet this is exactly what happened with the new Parisian breviary.  Quem vidistis, pastores? .  Likewise the designated cantor mounts the ambo—more precisely the steps of the ambo—where he performs the responsum gradale. Thus it is not until the beginning of the eighth century or the end of the seventh that we see the Schola transformed into a sort of ‘professional craft,’ the classic image that comes down to us in the Ordines Romani.”. de Hymnis eccles., § XXXII.). Et quia ineffabiliter de Virgine tanquam sponsus de thalamo processisse cantatur, ideo neuma in a tanquam modulatur: Quia vero ineffabiliter in Patre et Spiritu sancto coaequalis praedicatur, ideo neuma in Gloria Patri iubilatur. It should also be remembered that the ‘pure’ Gregorian chant of Rome was also in pretty awful shape in his time, with everybody using the reduced music of the old Medicean edition.”. These would concern principally three moments of the celebration: the entrance, the offertory, and the concluding rites. To tolerate just any sort of music or chant, to continue to debase the liturgy, is to demolish our faith, as I have often recalled: “, To illustrate my point in a positive way, let us take two examples of beautiful liturgical chants besides Gregorian chant in your country, France, and on the African continent. 428-449), “The General Character of the Liturgical Innovation in Relation to Poetry, Chant, and Aesthetics in General”. .  Philippe Bernard, Du chant romain au chant grégorien (IV e –XIII e siècle) (Paris: Cerf, 1996) 412: “First conceived as the company of the senior soloists of the titular churches, a corporation for the masters of Roman chant, the Schola cantorum became progressively a stage in the Roman clerical cursus, receiving children who had been destined for the Church.