A hormone is a chemical that is secreted by a gland in one area of the body and is carried by the bloodstream to other organs in the body, where it exerts some effect. Start studying Lab 2: Endocrine Glands & Cat Dissection. Place your cat ventral surface up on the dissecting tray. Anabolic steroids, probably the most notorious members of the steroid family, are actually synthetic derivatives of the male androgenic steroid hormones. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. This balance between the thyroid and parathyroid glands helps maintain proper blood levels of calcium at all time. Closely associated with the thyroid gland are the parathyroid glands, which produce a hormone that counteracts the action of a certain thyroid hormone by increasing blood calcium levels. As an endocrine organ, the hypo- thalamus secretes the hormone ADH (antidiuretic hormone), which controls the water balance within the body; oxytocin, which stimulates lactation and uterine contractions; and a variety of other hormones that exert control over the pituitary gland. The adrenal glands produce a variety of hormones, each exerting unique effects within the body. The pancreas is not just responsible for producing digestive enzymes; it secretes two hormones, insulin and glucagon, both involved in carbohydrate (sugar) metabolism within the body. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Other organs exhibiting endocrine functions include the stomach, which produces hormones that regulate digestion; the ovaries and testicles, which, together with the adrenal gland and placenta (in pregnant females), produce the sex hormones; the kidneys, which secrete hormones that influence blood flow and filtration within the kidneys themselves; and the thymus gland, with hormonal activity that influences the cells of the immune system. Among other things, adrenal hormones influence carbohydrate and protein metabolism and storage (cortisol, cortisone), help the kidneys regulate sodium and potassium levels (aldosterone), and control blood pressure and heart rate (epinephrine and norepinephrine). The amount of hormone required to exert its particular effect is precise. The hypothalamus, located at the bottom portion of the brainstem, functions as an integration center between the nervous system and the endocrine system. Hormones can be protein in nature, or they can be fashioned from special fatty components, known as steroids. pituitary gland, (ANT PIT) controls menstrual cycle and production of eggs, (ANT PIT) regulates menstrual cycle and production of eggs, (ANT PIT) regulates levels of steroid hormone, cortisol, released by the adrenal cortex, (ANT PIT) growth and activity of thyroid gland, (ANT PIT) stimulates growth of muscles and long bones, (ANT PIT) breast development and maintains lactation (women) and stimulates testosterone (males), (POS PIT) stimulates uterine contractions and milk ejections, (POS PIT) causes the kidney tubules to reabsorb more water in order to reduce urine output, (PINEAL GLAND) exhibits a daily cycle (makes you sleepy), Thyroid Hormone (TH, Thyroxine T4, Triiodothyronine T3), (THYROID GLAND) has 2 active hormones that control the rate of body metabolism and cellular oxidation, (THYROID GLAND) decreases blood calcium levels by stimulation calcium salt deposit in the bones, (PARATHYROID GLAND) most important regulator of calcium in the blood, (THYMUS) development of T-lymphocytes and the immune response, (ADRENAL MEDULLA) fight or flight response triggered by stressors, (ADRENAL CORTEX) regulates water/electrolyte balance by regulating sodium reabsorption by kidney tubules, Glucocorticoids (cortisol, hydrocortisone, corticosterone), (ADRENAL CORTEX) enables the body to resist long-term stressors by increasing blood glucose levels, (ADRENAL CORTEX) "sex hormones" androgens for males and estrogen for females, (PANCREAS) DECREASES blood sugar levels by INCREASING glucose transport, (PANCREAS) RAISES blood glucose levels by stimulation the liver to BREAKDOWN glucose, (GONADS) development of secondary sex characteristics in females, menstrual cycles, and lactation, (GONADS) maintains uterine musculature and prepares the breasts for lactation, (GONADS) matures sex structures and responsible for sexual drive. This is the group that has been largely exploited by athletes for increased muscular strength and size. Insulin functions to lower blood sugar by increasing its uptake and utilization by the body organs. Identify the gender of your cat. Like the nervous system, the endocrine system assumes a regulatory role within the body, and its proper function is essential to the overall health of the animal. Within the bodies of all mammals, a complex network of glands (the endocrine system) is responsible for the production and secretion of special proteins and lipids (fats) called hormones. Cat’s Endocrine System. Within the bodies of all mammals, a complex network of glands (the endocrine system) is responsible for the production and secretion of special proteins and lipids (fats) called hormones. 4. In addition, pituitary hormones also influence growth and reproductive patterns. Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which not enough insulin is produced by the pancreas, prohibiting cells and organs from extracting carbohydrates out of the bloodstream. pituitary, to transport and exchange hormones quickly btw 2 glands, connects the hypothalmus to the pos. 2 Cat Dissection Anterior (cephalad) Posterior (caudal) Superior (dorsal) Inferior (ventral) 3. Start studying BIO 211 Cat dissection Endocrine glands. Nervous system functions of the hypothalamus include regulation of body temperature, emotional behavior and sleep, and control of food and water intake. Certain organs can double as endocrine glands. Corticosteroids are a special group of steroids produced by the adrenal glands that are vital to many everyday functions within the body. As a result, hormonal activities within the body are governed by complex negative feedback mechanisms, which ensure proper blood levels at all times. Females have a urogeni- Both protein and steroid-type hormones are secreted directly into the bloodstream from the glands or organs that produce them, and circulate to their specific target cells or organs, where they exert their effect. Biology / By admin. chemical messengers released into the blood and transported thru the body, organs that respond to a specific hormone, blood vessels in brain that connect the hypothalmus to the ant. Hormones produced by the thyroid gland control the rate of growth and metabolism within the body, as well as decrease calcium levels within the bloodstream. Androgens (i.e., testosterone) and estrogens, the sex hormones that influence reproductive activity and secondary sexual characteristics, are also types of steroid hormones produced naturally within the body. The pituitary gland produces hormones that have effects on other endocrine glands, such as the thyroid and adrenal glands. Males have a scrotum and a prepuce,a small mound anterior to the scrotum in which the penis is located. Unfortunately, certain disease conditions involving the endocrine glands and organs can disrupt this delicate balance, which can pose serious health problems. Synthetic derivatives of this steroid group are commonly used, among other things, to reduce pain and inflammation resulting from musculoskeletal injuries. “Steroid” is one of the most misused and widely misunderstood terms in today’s society. Although all the different classes of steroids mentioned above, whether natural or synthetic, share a similar structural design, it is easy to see that their functions and effects differ greatly between each class. Without the endocrine glands and their hormones, a state of chaos would quickly ensue within the body, as the functional harmony existing between the various organ systems would cease to exist. Counteracting the effects of insulin, glucagon increases blood sugar levels by decreasing its uptake into the liver and fatty tissue. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}). In turn, these hormones serve to regulate many vital functions within the body, from growth and development to digestion and utilization of nutrients. If present in too great a quantity, or if supplies are deficient, abnormal function of its target cells or organs result. A cat’s endocrine system is composed of several different types of glands and organs that produce the hormones of the body. Too much parathyroid hormone can result in excess resorption of bony tissue, resulting in metabolic bone disease. In turn, these hormones serve to regulate many vital functions within the body, from growth and development to digestion and utilization of nutrients.