The cone snail is one of the largest marine snail families represented in the Hawaiian Islands. The shell is many-whorled and in the form of an inverted cone, the anterior end being the narrow end., Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 September 2020, at 14:32. [6] Cone snails are typically found in warm and tropical seas and oceans worldwide, and they reach their greatest diversity in the Western Indo-Pacific region. For other uses, see, Predatory sea snails within the family Conidae, Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S. (2015). The authors group 85% of all known cone snail species under Conus. Cancer and Cone Snails (TV Episode) ... University of Hawaii, 2011. In other species, the topmost shell layer is thin periostracum, a transparent yellowish or brownish membrane. R.L. They occur in the Red Sea, in the Indian Ocean off Chagos, RĂ©union, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique and Tanzania. [3] Cone snails are almost all tropical in distribution. There is always a dart stored in the radular sac. The osphradium (a chemoreceptory organ) is more highly specialized than the same organ in any other group of gastropods. [1], This article is about the group of sea snails. (The radula in most gastropods has rows of many small teeth, and is used for grasping at food and scraping it into the mouth.) The venom has an LD50 toxicity in of 0.012-0.030 mg/kg. Cone snail habitats vary for different species. Its walls are also noticeably thinner and lighter compared to other cone shells of similar length and size. [18] According to Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies, about 27 human deaths can be confidently attributed to cone snail envenomation, though the actual number is almost certainly much higher; some three dozen people are estimated to have died from geography cone envenomation alone. Naturally occurring, beachworn cone shell "tops" (the broken-off spire of the shell, which usually end up with a hole worn at the tip) can function as beads without any further modification. Other drugs are in clinical and preclinical trials, such as compounds of the toxin that may be used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, and epilepsy.[23][24]. The shells are shaped more or less like the geometric shape known as a cone, as one might expect from the popular and scientific name. [4] The geography cone is also known colloquially as the "cigarette snail", a gallows humor exaggeration implying that, when stung by this creature, the victim will have only enough time to smoke a cigarette before dying. Cone snails are predators. Afonso & M.J. Tenorio (August 2011). Recent cone species database. However, in recent years, it was suggested that cone snails should occupy only a subfamily that should be split into a very large number of genera. Because all cone snails are venomous and capable of "stinging" humans, live ones should never be handled, as their venomous sting will occur without warning and can be fatal. The largest, the leopard Conus (Conus leopardus) can reach 9 inches in length. These snails are predatory and use a sophisticated detection system to find prey that swims by. The cone snail is one of the largest marine snail families represented in the Hawaiian Islands. Some prefer mangroves or sandy banks, while others prefer much deeper waters to search for other snails and fish.