Hence they chose several warriors who were not from any noble or powerful family and encouraged them by giving the good positions in the army. In 1309 Alauddin sent his general, Malik Kafur, in an attempt to force Prataparudra into acceptance of a position subordinate to the sultanate at Delhi. He is also known as Ganapathi Deva and, according to Sastry, reigned between 1199–1262; Sircar gives regnal dates of 1199–1260. There is also little evidence that Kakatiya society paid much regard to caste identities, in the sense of jāti. Ganapati Deva (r. 1199–1262) significantly expanded Kakatiya lands during the 1230s and brought under Kakatiya control the Telugu-speaking lowland delta areas around the Godavari and Krishna rivers. The dramatically altered the possibilities for development in the sparsely populated dry areas. Kakatiya kings as much as generally very powerful, they merge several places of other kingdoms into their kingdom and became very powerful. Taking advantage of a revolution in Delhi that saw the Khalji dynasty removed and Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq installed as sultan, Prataparudra again asserted his independence in 1320. The Kakatiya's ascent to power can be traced to the reign of the Western Chalukyas. He created the man-made Pakhal Lake. Kakatiyas had a lot of military skills, so they became the army chiefs and gained control over Anmakonda. This appears likely to be historical revisionism, dating from a genealogy published by the ruling family in 1703, because it records only eight generations spanning almost four centuries of rule. The city buildings and palaces seated within the stone wall of the fort, as a result of the soldiers carefully look after them. Kumarasvami Somapithin, a 15th-century writer who wrote a commentary on Vidyanatha's Prataparudriya, states that the dynasty was named after Kakati, a form of goddess Durga. Prataparudra celebrated the apparent victory by opening up his grain stores for public feasting. The term "Kshatriya" in these panegyric records appears to signify the family's warrior-like qualities rather than their actual varna. Kafur organised a month-long siege of Orugallu that ended with success in February 1310. The Kings of Kakatiya dynasty followed this Nayakara system very admirably. The Kakatiya rulers traced their ancestry to a legendary chief or ruler named Durjaya. The succeeding chiefs included Beta II (c. 1076–1108), Tribhuvanamalla Durgaraja (c. 1108–1116) and then Prola II (c. 1116–1157). Tughlaq sent his son, Ulugh Khan, to defeat the defiant Kakatiya king in 1321. According to Sastry, this corroborates the theory that the Kakatiyas were associated with the Rashtrakuta family. Variants include Kakatiya, Kakatiyya, Kakita, Kakati and Kakatya. Many of these edifices, often called "tanks", including the large examples at Pakala and Ramappa, are still used today. There is a disparity between analysis of inscriptions, of which the work of Cynthia Talbot has been in the vanguard, and the traditional works of Vedic Hinduism that described pre-colonial India in terms of a reverent and static society that was subject to the strictures of the caste system. The similarities of names mentioned in the Mangallu and Bayyaram inscriptions lists suggest that both of these refer to the same family: Historian P.V.P. Sastry theorises that "Viṣṭi" is a corruption of Vrishni, the name of a clan from which some Rashtrakutas claimed descent. However, after they became sovereigns they were addressed as "deva" (Lord or deity) and "devi" (Lady or deity). Tughlaq control of the area lasted only for around a decade. He notes that some chiefs of Rashtrakuta origin adopted the title "Viṭṭi-narayana", which means "as great as Narayana (Krishna) of the Vitti (Vrishni) family. A fragmentary Kannada language inscription also states that the Kakatiya general Bhairava defeated the Yadava army probably in or after 1263 CE, which may be a reference to his repulsion of Mahadeva's invasion. Their capital was Orugallu, now known as Warangal.Early Kakatiya rulers served as feudatories to Rashtrakutas and Western Chalukyas for more than two centuries. A stone inscription dated 1330 mentions a Prolaya Nayaka, who was said to have restored order, as in Prataparudra days. A few copper-plate inscriptions of the Kakatiya family describe them as belonging to the Kshatriya (warrior) varna. This suggests that Gundyana was a Rashtrakuta general, and not a Vengi Chalukya subordinate, as assumed by some earlier historians. The growth of an agricultural peasant class subsumed many tribal people who previously had been nomadic. In 1311, Prataparudra formed a part of the sultanate forces that attacked the Pandyan empire in the south, and he took advantage of that situation to quell some of his vassals in Nellore who had seen his reduced status as an opportunity for independence. Later, though, in 1318, he failed to provide the annual tribute to Delhi, claiming that the potential for being attacked on the journey made it impossible. As early as 1330, Musunuri Nayaks who served as army chiefs for Kakatiya kingdom united the various Telugu clans and recovered Warangal from the Delhi Sultanate and ruled for half a century. The nexus of politics and military was a significant feature of the era, and the Kakatiya recruitment of peasants into the military did much to create a new warrior class, to develop social mobility and to extend the influence of the dynasty into areas of its kingdom that previously would have been untouched. It records Dānārnava's grant of Mangallu village to a Brahmana named Dommana, at the request of Kakatiya Gundyana. The Shaivism-affiliated personal names of the later Kakatiya kings (such as Rudra, Mahadeva, Harihara, and Ganapati) also indicate a shift towards Shaivism. By 1420, Muslim rulers had become accommodated to the Deccan society, and strong dichotomies between Hindus and Muslims were no longer useful. Another attack by Ulugh Khan in 1323 saw stiff resistance by the Kakatiyan army, but they were finally defeated. Warangal’s fort, lying southeast of the present-day city, was once surrounded by two walls; traces of the outer wall remain, as do the four stone gateways (sanchars) of the inner wall. The Khush Mahal,…, In the eastern Deccan the Kakatiya dynasty was based in parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh state and survived until the Turkish attack in the 14th century. Many other ruling dynasties of Andhra also claimed descent from Durjaya. The following members of the Kakatiya family are known from epigraphic evidence. The strengthening of those hierarchies, which was achieved in part by donating land for the temples and then attending worship, was necessary as the inland agrarian society grew rapidly in number and location. According to another theory, the suffix implies that the Kakatiyas were a branch of the Rashtrakuta family, because the term Rashtrakuta-kutumbinah was used for officers employed by the Rashtrakuta administration, not feudatory chiefs: the early records of the Kakatiya chiefs describe them as samantas (feudatory chiefs). Marco Polo, who visited India probably some time around 1289–1293, made note of Rudrama Devi's rule and nature in flattering terms. The attackers were initially repulsed and Khan's forces retreated to regroup in Devagiri. The Malkapuram inscription of Visvesvara Sivacharya, the preceptor of Kakatiya rulers Ganapati-deva and Rudrama-devi, also connects the Kakatiyas to the solar dynasty (Sūryavaṃsa). By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The family name was often prefixed to the name of the monarch, giving constructs such as Kakatiya-Prataparudra. The rulers are children of their predecessors, unless otherwise specified. Sastry also believes that the early Kakatiya chiefs followed Jainism, which was also patronized by the Rashtrakutas, thus strengthening the view that the two dynasties were connected (see Religion section below). Anyone, regardless of birth, could acquire the nayaka title to denote warrior status, and this they did. The Kannada text Kumara-Ramana-charita also provides information about Prataparudra's relations with the Kampili kingdom. Kakatiya dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that ruled parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh, India from 1083CE to 1323CE. A 1978 book written by P.V.P. Khan's army was riven with internal dissension due to its containing factions from the Khalji and Tughluq camps. Most notable examples are the Thousand Pillar Temple in Hanamkonda, Ramappa Temple in Palampet, Warangal Fort, and Kota Gullu in Ghanpur. The Royal families, Feudal families, the rich sections and the merchants participated voluntarily in providing agricultural facilities in every village. Ganapati Deva was succeded by Rudrama Devi (r. 1262–1289) and is one of the few queens in Indian history. The Eastern Calukyas ruled in the Godavari River delta, and in the 13th century their fortunes were tied to those of the…. Although occupation does appear to have been an important designator of social position, the inscriptions suggest that people were not bound to an occupation by birth. He was also known as Rudra Deva, Kakatiya Rudradeva, Venkata, and Venkataraya He was the son of Prola II, who had made efforts to assert greater Kakatiya influence on territories in the eastern parts of the declining Western Chalukyan empire and who died in a battle fought against the Velanati Choda ruler Gonka II around 1157/1158 while doing so. The Kakatiyas seemed to have adopted the mythical bird Garuda as their royal insignia, as attested by the Ekamranatha temple inscription of Ganapati-deva, the Palampet inscription of the Kakatiya general Recharla Rudra, and Vidyanatha's Prataparudriya. Therefore the Nayakaras shows with the utmost respect and loyalty to the king and the queen. Inscriptions are still being discovered today but governmental agencies tend to concentrate on recording those that are already known rather than searching for new examples. In 1303, Alauddin Khilji, the emperor of the Delhi Sultanate invaded the Kakatiya territory which ended up as a disaster for the Turks. The modern identity of Kakati is uncertain: different historians have variously attempted to identify it with modern Kakati village in Karnataka and Kanker in Chhattisgarh. Warangal’s fort, lying southeast of the present-day city, was once surrounded by two walls; traces of the outer wall remain, as do the four stone gateways (sanchars) of the inner wall. Rudrama Devi, also known as Rudramadevi, reigned around 1262–1289 CE (alternative dates: 1261–1295 CE) and is one of the few queens in Indian history. The unprepared and battle-weary army of Orugallu was finally defeated, and Orugallu was renamed as Sultanpur. Studies of the inscriptions and coinage by the historian Dineshchandra Sircar reveal that there was no contemporary standard spelling of the family name. Sastry further proposes that the term "Voddi", which appears in the phrase Voddi-kula ("Voddi family") in the Mangallu inscription may be same as "Viṣṭi".