Humans have only been able to see the planet from space for the last 50 years. Enewetak Atoll. The U.S. government referred to the atoll as "Eniwetok" until 1974, when it changed its official spelling to "Enewetak" (along with many other Marshall Islands place names, to more properly reflect their pronunciation by the Marshall Islanders[2]). During the three-year, $100 million cleanup process, the military mixed more than 111,000 cubic yards (85,000 m3) of contaminated soil and debris[14] from the various islands with Portland cement and buried it in an atomic blast crater on the northern end of the atoll's Runit Island. It is the second-westernmost atoll of the Ralik Chain and is 305 kilometres (190 mi) west from Bikini Atoll. [14] The United States government declared the southern and western islands in the atoll safe for habitation in 1980,[17] and residents of Enewetak returned that same year. [5] The seamount is made of basalt, and its depth is due to a general subsidence of the entire region and not because of erosion. Its land area totals less than 5.85 square kilometres (2.26 sq mi), not higher than 5 metres and surrounding a deep central lagoon, 80 kilometres (50 mi) in circumference. The top was covered to form a dome. Show Map. The first Europeans to arrive on the islands were Spanish explorers, who documented arriving on the island’s shores around 1530. The final cost of the cleanup project was US$239 million. The government said that the northern islands would not be safe for inhabitation until 2010. [33], Men from the 110th Naval Construction Battalion arrived on Eniwetok between 21 and 27 February 1944 and began clearing the island for construction of a bomber airfield. As they used it only for refueling planes between Truk and islands to the east, no aviation personnel were stationed there and the island had only token defenses. The formation of Enewetak Atoll occurred on top of a basalt seamount that is about 4,600 feet below the seas level. It was visited by about a dozen ships before the establishment of the German colony of the Marshall Islands in 1885. Enewetak Atoll. A marine railway was installed on an existing Japanese pier and boat-repair shops were also erected.[34]. The daily average of ships present during the first half of July 1944 was 488; during the second half of July the daily average number of ships at Enewetak was 283. When the Gilberts fell to the United States, the Imperial Japanese Army assigned defense of the atoll to the 1st Amphibious Brigade, formed from the 3rd Independent Garrison, which had previously been stationed in Manchukuo. "Strontium-Isotope Stratigraphy of Enewetak Atoll". Stickell. In 1980, the region was declared safe for habitation, and the people returned. "Supreme Court: No Review of Award for US Nuclear Weapons Tests. The name was changed to the present name in the year 1974 by the US government. Weight: 1 lbs: You can buy a map from a lot of different places, but with a custom map, you will have the ability to curate a map to your exact specifications. [18] In 1977, the United States military began decontamination of Enewetak and other islands. "Site Restoration and Cleanup of Contaminated Areas." Dictionary of American Naval Aviation Squadrons, Annotated bibliography for Eniwetok Atoll from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues, Information on legal judgements to the people of Enewetak, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Enewetak_Atoll?oldid=4516810, Pages using deprecated coordinates format, 34.5463 megatons (6.6% of total test yield worldwide). A German colony was finally established on the island in 1885. Before testing commenced, the U.S. exhumed the bodies of United States servicemen killed in the Battle of Enewetak and returned them to the United States to be re-buried by their families. The Imperial Japanese Navy had developed a seaplane base on Parry Island. In November 1942, the Japanese built an airfield on Engebi Island; because they used it only for refueling planes between Truk and islands to the east, no flying personnel were stationed there and the island had only token defenses. During the three-year, US$100 million cleanup process, the military mixed more than 80,000 cubic metres (100,000 cu yd) of contaminated soil and debris[19] from the islands with Portland cement and buried it in an atomic blast crater on the northern end of the atoll's Runit Island. Other islands that are part of the Marshall Islands also had their names changed. The process took three years to complete and cost around $239 million. Because they attract fish, corals, and other marine mammals, seamounts are also a hotspot for commercial fishing. [21], Men from the 110th Naval Construction Battalion arrived on Eniwetok between 21 and 27 February 1944 and began clearing the island for construction of a bomber airfield. Of the 3,940 men in the brigade, 2,586 were left to defend Eniwetok Atoll, supplemented by aviation personnel, civilian employees, and laborers, but were unable to finish fortifying the island before the American assault. Following its capture on 22 February, Seebees from the 110th Naval Construction Battalion expanded the base, building a coral-surfaced parking area and shops for minor aircraft and engine overhaul. Runit Island (/ ˈ r uː n ɪ t /) is one of 40 islands of the Enewetak Atoll of the Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean.The island is the site of a radioactive waste repository left by the United States after it conducted a series of nuclear tests on Enewetak Atoll between 1946 and 1958. The military took at least 111,000 cubic yards of contaminated soil and other substances and mixed it with cement then buried the dried mixture in a crater formed by a blast. [16] It had two taxiways and a 6,800 X 400 foot runway.