Four storms of this season became Category 5 hurricanes, the highest ranking on the scale.  Rainfall in the United States peaked at 9.50 in (241 mm) in Saint Bernard, Louisiana.  The system entered the Gulf of Mexico, strengthening into Tropical Storm Cindy early on July 5.  The flooding killed 10 people after 6 to 10 in (150 to 250 mm) of precipitation fell in some locales.  Over the next couple of days, the system developed a low-level circulation and atmospheric convection increased as it moved north-westwards, before the NHC classified it as Tropical Storm Zeta during December 30. , Subtropical Depression Twenty-Two formed from a non-tropical low 450 miles (725 km) southeast of Bermuda on October 8. The consecutive occurrence of hurricane seasons as active as 2004 and 2005 in the Atlantic was unprecedented.  The activity in later parts of the 2005 season was elevated by the unusual development of four tropical cyclones from non-tropical origins over the eastern Atlantic. A strengthening trough over western Europe accelerated Delta towards the east-northeast on November 27, concurrent with the brief emergence of an eye and a period of intensification. The committee agreed that the usage of the Greek alphabet had a "major important political, economic and social impact globally, which might not have happened if a secondary or circular list of names had been used", and that the Greek alphabet would be used again if the traditional naming list was exhausted. , A strong tropical wave entered the eastern Atlantic on August 27. A table of the storms that formed during the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season is given below: it includes storm name, duration, peak strength, areas affected, damage, and death total.  While environmental conditions favorable for the development of tropical cyclones were analogous to other active seasons, they were more pronounced and encompassed larger areas in 2005. Continuing across the Caribbean Sea, Emily eventually strengthened into a Category 5 hurricane on July 16 to the southwest of Jamaica, reaching peak winds of 160 mph (260 km/h).  There were four deaths in Mexico, and nationwide damage was estimated at US$454 million ($4.8 billion MXN).  Vince transitioned into a tropical storm on the following day and was upgraded to a hurricane shortly thereafter. The season shattered numerous records, with 28 tropical or subtropical storms recorded. Irene turned to the west, and later resumed its northwest track. Katrina became the costliest U.S. hurricane, leaving $125 billion in damage[nb 2] and 1,833 deaths. , Tropical Depression Six formed northeast of the Bahamas on July 21, originating from a tropical wave that exited the coast of Africa on July 10. , On July 26, Bermuda recorded wind gusts of 37 mph (59 km/h) while the storm made its closest approach. , Subtropical Storm Vince formed in the eastern Atlantic near Madeira on October 8 from the same non-tropical low that absorbed the unnamed subtropical storm.  Katrina forced about 800,000 people to move temporarily, which was the greatest number of displaced people in the country since the Dust Bowl. It developed into Tropical Depression Thirteen on August 28 while 960 miles (1550 km) east of the Lesser Antilles. It quickly intensified into Tropical Storm Philippe while taking a track to the north-northwest. The low that absorbed the storm would eventually become Hurricane Vince. The depression quickly intensified into Tropical Storm Franklin, but wind shear disrupted the storm's initial development.  Wilma killed 12 people in Haiti and one in Jamaica. Note: There is an undercount bias of zero to six tropical cyclones per year between 1851 and 1885 and zero to four per year between 1886 and 1910, due to the lack of modern observation techniques, see. On June 10, Arlene struck western Cuba. Convection developed atop the center of the nascent disturbance two days later, and satellite data suggested that it was acquiring thermodynamic characteristics exhibited by tropical cyclones.  Two helicopter pilots were killed when their aircraft crashed while evacuating offshore oil platforms operated by Pemex. The 2005 Atlantic hurricane season is second only to the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season as the most active Atlantic hurricane season on record.  One person drowned in Cerro Azul, while another death occurred in Naranjos due to cardiac arrest. The Florida unit of Gulf Islands National Seashore was still recovering from Hurricane Ivan (2004) when Hurricanes Cindy, Dennis, Katrina, and Rita plus Tropical Storm Arlene affected the park. On August 15, the storm turned to the north, passing between Bermuda and North Carolina.  Wilma inflicted a multi-billion dollar disaster in the Miami metropolitan area, including $2.9 billion in damage in Palm Beach County, $2 billion in Miami-Dade County, and $1.2 billion in Broward County. Frequent lulls in convection over the tropical Pacific also contributed to the strength of these ridges, focusing hurricane activity in the Atlantic.  While passing through the Lesser Antilles, the heavy rainfall caused mudslides, killing two people on Bequia. On September 24, Rita made landfall near the Texas–Louisiana border with sustained winds of 115 mph (185 km/h).  Later, Wilma flooded parts of western Cuba, leaving US$704 million in damage. Storms named with Greek letters that would otherwise be eligible for retirement would appear in the retired name list, but have a notation affixed with the circumstances.. Wind speed and classification at time of landfall, Trees defoliated and blown over; significant sediment deposition and major erosion; concessions facilities and housing damaged; vehicles destroyed; campground closed, Barrier islands breached and truncated; extensive erosion and vegetation damage, including trees; wildlife impacted; Fort Massachusetts damaged; visitor center heavily damaged; voluminous debris accumulation, Floating marsh torn and compressed; trees damaged; Chinese tallow (, 15 September; offshore of Cape Lookout, NC, Enormous amount of downed tree blocking trails and roads; high fuel load anticipated for 2006 fire season; headquarters damaged, Saltwater intrusion of marsh, swamp, and forest; trees damaged and lost; changes in vegetation, Road and culverts damaged; nonnative plant invasions; roosting trees for endangered woodpecker damaged, Beach erosion; around 1,000 (of 3,600) sea turtle nests lost, Trees broken and blown down; birds, fruit bats, and coral reefs impacted, Previous Chapter: 1997–1998 El Niño / 1998–1999 La Niña.  Katrina caused catastrophic damage to the Gulf Coast, devastating a long stretch of coast along Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama with a 30-foot (9 m) storm surge. Wilma weakened to Category 4 intensity by the time it made landfall on Cozumel on October 21. This was associated with an active phase of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO), with a similar period of elevated tropical activity occurring between 1950 and 1969. A day later, New Orleans mayor Ray Nagin issued the city's first-ever mandatory evacuation. In August and September, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita made landfall near parks along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico.  By the end of September, 17 named storms had developed, of which nine had developed into hurricanes and four had become major hurricanes.  The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) predicted in May 2005 that the conditions associated with this active multi-decadal signal would continue into the 2005 hurricane season, providing favorable conditions for tropical cyclogenesis in the tropical Atlantic. Producing occasional bursts of convection, the mid-level remnant circulation eventually merged with another system. , A tropical wave organized into Tropical Depression Twenty-Five in the eastern Caribbean on October 22. This culminated in the cyclone attaining Category 5 hurricane status, reaching peak winds of 185 mph (295 km/h) and setting a record for the lowest barometric pressure in an Atlantic hurricane; at 12:00 UTC on October 19, the Hurricane Hunters recorded a pressure of 882 mbar (26.0 inHg) in the center of the tiny, well-defined eye of Wilma. On Bermuda, Harvey dropped 5.02 in (128 mm) of rainfall at Bermuda International Airport, flooding some roads.  It weakened on January 2, only to re-intensify to its peak intensity on January 3.  On August 4, Harvey passed 45 miles (75 km) south of Bermuda. Dennis re-intensified to a secondary peak of 145 mph (230 km/h) on July 10, only to weaken prior to its final landfall later that day near Pensacola, Florida. , There was considerable discussion on the usage of the Greek alphabet.  Numerous homes and businesses experienced some degree of impact, with over 55,000 dwellings and 3,600 workplaces damaged in Palm Beach County alone. Within a year of the storm, most of the levees were largely repaired. The cyclone became more organized two hours before making landfall and was forming an eye, but its winds remained under hurricane strength.  El Salvador's Santa Ana Volcano erupted on October 1, occurring simultaneous to the flooding. It organized into Tropical Storm Rita later that day. The same trough created unfavorable conditions, causing Nate to weaken quickly back to tropical storm status. Later that day, the storm moved ashore just west of Pensacola, Florida. Note: This article was compiled and excerpted from Beavers and Selleck (2006).  Across the region, the hurricane flooded and ruined about 350,000 vehicles. Also hit was Big Cypress National Preserve, which sustained widespread, though not severe, damage to infrastructure and natural and cultural resources. It re-intensified into a tropical storm on August 11. Katrina Stalled over the Gulf of Mexico, gaining strength. , A tropical depression developed on August 23 from the complex interaction of a tropical wave, the mid-level remnants of Tropical Depression Ten, and a nearby upper-level trough. The 2005 season featured 15 hurricanes, surpassing the previous record of 12, set in 1969. A high-latitude tropical wave led to the genesis of Tropical Depression Nine west of Cabo Verde on August 4. The remnants of Tropical Storm Tammy and Subtropical Depression Twenty-Two contributed to flooding over the northeastern United States that killed 10 people. , A third of Cameron Parish's population left the parish following the devastation wrought by Rita. Overall, Beta caused nine fatalities and more than $15.5 million in damage across four countries. As convection increased near the center, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Gert early on July 24. The fourth named storm developed at a then-record early date that was later surpassed in 2012. On September 2, the depression degenerated into a remnant low, which was absorbed by a cold front two days later. On Santa Rosa Island, major portions of the 15 miles (24 km) of park roads, which Ivan had washed out, were under repair when the 2005 storms destroyed the roads again.  Rita struck near the border of Louisiana and Texas. Epsilon lasted as a hurricane until December 7, the most for any Atlantic tropical cyclone in December. Moving to the west-northwest, the storm's intensification attenuated over the Bahamas before resuming thereafter, becoming a hurricane on September 20 between Cuba and Florida. About 80% of the city and 83% of neighboring Jefferson Parish evacuated ahead of the storm. , The interplay of a cold front and a trough led to the development of Tropical Depression Sixteen over the northern Bahamas on September 6.  Throughout the United States, Katrina killed 1,833 people, making it one of the deadliest hurricanes in the United States, and the deadliest American hurricane since 1928. An unprecedented three hurricanes had sustained winds of more than 155 miles per hour (249 kph)—the equivalent of a category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale, though not at landfall.