One of our fields contains some cherry laurel trees. It is poisonous to mammals. Sheep should always have ready access to sheep-formulated minerals, either in the form of loose minerals in a clean dispenser or from mineral blocks in a clean holder. Mountain Laurel One of the earliest reports of "mad honey disease" comes from the Greek warrior and writer Xenophon in 401 B.C. Poison hemlock is sometimes confused with western waterhemlock--a more deadly plant--because the names are similar. The symptoms of poisoning are given. When the symptoms of the grayanotoxins kick in, doctors sometimes refer to it as "mad honey disease." In 1907, Connecticut's General Assembly designated the shrub as that state's state flower, praising its beauty and scent. Do not operate motor vehicles. Birds do not appear to be affected by consuming mountain laurel, which some species fly to for nectar. All species of livestock have exhibited toxicosis from English Ivy with symptoms including local irritation, excessive salivation, nausea, excitement, difficult breathing, severe diarrhea, thirst, and coma. Its stems tend to grow in the spring, and its seeds mature between September and October. If you haven’t already, take a second to check it out to better understand how certain toxins affect goat health. The mountain laurel is a beautiful plant commonly found in the eastern United States, but it contains a potentially deadly poison. Grayanotoxins bind to sodium channels in heart, nerve and muscle causing mainatining cells in a state of depolarization. Cattle, sheep, horses, swine will display anorexia, constipation that develops into diarrhea, gastroenteritis, thirst, and excessive urination. Effects usually begin within six hours. Another note is that a lot of landscaping companies claim a tree is a “red maple” but not an actual “acer rubrum”. The toxic principle interferes with normal skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle and nerve function. A native to these regions, the mountain laurel can be found as far north as New England – occasionally it can be found in Quebec – as far south as Florida and as far west as Louisiana. Other animals beyond humans may also be affected by the harmful compounds in the mountain laurel. Adapted from an article by: However, even the nectar and pollen of its flowers contain grayanotoxins, which end up in the honey that the bees make and, in some cases, humans and other animals consume. Different patients worldwide have consumed between 20 and 200 grams of honey before becoming afflicted. Death is proceeded by coma. PLEASE NOTE: "Poisonous" does not mean deadly. They may have similar names and the leaves may look like regular bay leaves, but they belong to entirely different plant families and are completely unrelated to bay laurel. Like most plants, the mountain laurel relies on bees and other pollinators to sexually reproduce; bees act as the primary pollinator for the species, though the mountain laurel frequently reproduces asexually through tubers or other methods. Keep mountain laurel plants out of any enclosures with domesticated animals – it is poisonous to many mammals. Links and all references to outside content do not constitute (i) incorporation by reference of information contained on or in such outside content and such information should not be considered part of U.OSU.EDU or (ii) endorsement of such content by The Ohio State University. Keep mountain laurel plants out of any enclosures with domesticated animals – it is poisonous to many mammals. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Symptoms of yew poisoning are gastric distress, diarrhea, vomiting, tremors, dilated pupils, respiratory difficulty, weakness, fatigue, collapse, coma, convulsions, circulatory failure, and death.  Survival after yew poisoning is rare. The plants can survive in infertile soils in part because of their waxy, leatherlike leaves, which reduce the amount of nutrients that can be leached from them. References Among domesticated animals, cattle primarily suffer from eating the shrubs. This plant is also called “Sheepkill” (emphasizing just how toxic it is to grazing animals also), and is commonly found in pastures and clearings. The most common exposure occurs when limbs are blown down or are trimmed and thrown into a fenced area. Heavier poisoning from consuming higher amounts of the plant can result in abnormal heart rate and rhythm, convulsions, coma and, potentially, death. In cattle, intoxication from grayanotoxins usually comes about between three and 14 hours and can last up to two days. Horticulturalists have named 75 different cultivars of the mountain laurel. That last point probably won't affect that many people trying to grow mountain laurel, but still: People attempting to keep animals should not allow them to consume the plants. While the plant had been seen by preceding authors, Gronovius {13) and Catesby (5) in 1743, it was first given Wilted cherry tree leaves cause anxiety, staggering, falling down, convulsions, rolling of the eyes, tongue hanging out, loss of sensation, and dilated pupils. Oaks Beware of toxic bay-like trees. They contain diterpene compounds, which are a classification of chemicals that, as their name implies, contain two terpene units) called grayanotoxins. All parts of this poisonous shrub are highly toxic and may be fatal if eaten. Plants That Are Toxic To Sheep. Mountain Laurel – Native or wild Mountain Laurel, Rhododendron and Azalea are all considered poisonous and highly toxic to ruminants. Scientific Name: Kalmia latifolia. Laurel hedging is also toxic to humans – including berries, leaves and stems – and particularly wilted or fallen leaves. With houses springing up everywhere in Ohio, the rural/urban interface is dramatically increasing. The ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center reported that in 2017, 5 percent of all calls were related to pets ingesting plants toxic to them, making it ninth on their list of the top 10 pet toxins. The fruit is a large, hard, woody, jointed, one- to eight-seeded legume pod. Holding up their distinct flowers and broad leaves, their reddish-brown limbs, branches and stems twist and curl, cutting interesting pathways from the soil to the air. Scientific Name Common Name(s) Species Most Often Affected Parts Poisonous Primary Poison(s) Apocynum spp. While most plants are beneficial, some are hazardous to animal and human life. Several of its folk-names testify to the plant's toxicity: 'lamb-kill', 'sheep kill', 'calf-kill', 'pig laurel', 'sheep-laurel' and 'sheep-poison'. It exists taxonomically as a member of the heath family, which also includes the rhododendron, azalea, huckleberry and blueberry. There, at the highest points of the mountains, around 4,000 feet, shrubs dominate. Mountain Laurel. Kalmia Carolina - This type of laurel is also referred to as the Carolina laurel and the Carolina wicky. One essential part of a sheep’s day is that of grazing. However, grayanotoxins can still show up in North American honey. It is almost hard to believe that the mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia, which grows comfortably in USDA plant hardiness zones 5 to 9) carries within it a deadly poison. Although sheep laurel is poisonous to sheep and other livestock, it provides important winter forage and cover for wild grouse and other birds. English Ivy Care should be taken whilst planting your hedge … It is recommended that customers who are going to be planting a hedge which may be accessible to livestock consider an alternative species, or choose Bay Laurel, which is not poisonous to sheep. Diarrhea appears uncommon but not unheard of. Knowing toxic plants for goats is a helpful skill. Encyclopaedia Britannica: Mountain Laurel, U.S. Forestry Service: Fire Effects Information System (FEIS), Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources: Mountain Laurel, Pennsylvania's State Flower, University of Maryland Extension: Toxic Plant Profile: Rhododendron and Azalea, Cardiovascular Toxicology: Grayanotoxin Poisoning: ‘Mad Honey Disease’ and Beyond, Texas A&M Today: Expert Gives the Buzz on Mad Honey, Agriculture and Food Security: Bioactive Compounds, Health Benefits and Utilization of Rhododendron: a Comprehensive Review, ASPCA: Toxic and Non-Toxic Plants: Mountain Laurel, Colorado State University: Guide to Poisonous Plants, North Carolina State University Extension: Poisonous Plants to Livestock. Only the wilted leaves are toxic as they produce cyanide. In some southern states, it can grow as high as 40 feet. The Colorado State University Guide to Poisonous Plants database lists trees, shrubs and perennials that can be harmful to animals. However, care needs to be taken when cultivating the perennial.