One of the biggest lunar craters, Apollo, is named after Apollo missions. [17][18] Since 1919, assignment of these names is regulated by the International Astronomical Union. [6] Visible to the naked eye, the impact is believed to be from an approximately 40 kg (88 lb) meteoroid striking the surface at a speed of 90,000 km/h (56,000 mph; 16 mi/s). The list of approved names in the Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature maintained by the International Astronomical Union includes the diameter of the crater and the person the crater is named for. the products of subterranean lunar vulcanism[3]. Grove Karl Gilbert suggested in 1893 that the Moon's craters were formed by large asteroid impacts. Craters typically will have some or all of the following features: In 1978, Chuck Wood and Leif Andersson of the Lunar & Planetary Lab devised a system of categorization of lunar impact craters. The formation of new craters is studied in the lunar impact monitoring program at NASA. The largest crater on the Moon is called South Pole-Aitkin Basin. [9] The competing theories were (a) volcanic eruptions blasting holes in the Moon, (b) meteoric impact, (c) a theory known as the Welteislehre developed in Germany between the two World Wars which suggested glacial action creating the craters. [17], Small craters of special interest (for example, visited by lunar missions) receive human first names (Robert, José, Louise etc.). The lunar craters are listed in the following subsections. [15], Lunar crater chains are usually named after a nearby crater. Robert Hooke in "Micrographia" (1665) proposed two hypotheses for lunar crater formation: one that the craters caused by projectile bombardment from space, the other that they were Lunar craters are impact craters on Earth's Moon. For the volcanic crater in Nevada, see, This term was coined by Soviet explorers of the Moon after beginning of exploration of. [13] In March 2018, the discovery of around 7,000 formerly unidentified lunar craters via convolutional neural network developed at the University of Toronto Scarborough was announced.[7][8]. According to David H. Levy, Gene "saw the craters on the Moon as logical impact sites that were formed not gradually, in eons, but explosively, in seconds."[4]. Johann Gottlob Friedrich von Bohnenberger,–B&oldid=972821420, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Crater visible in the foreground of the iconic, This page was last edited on 13 August 2020, at 23:46. The word crater was adopted from the Greek word for "vessel" (Κρατήρ a Greek vessel used to mix wine and water). Evidence collected during the Apollo Project and from unmanned spacecraft of the same period proved conclusively that meteoric impact, or impact by asteroids for larger craters, was the origin of almost all lunar craters, and by implication, most craters on other bodies as well. Somerville is a small lunar impact crater in the eastern part of the Moon.