Often referred to merely as Late Baroque, the Rococo developed from the Baroque artistic movement. The effect is similar to parquetry, a way to create designs in wood flooring. ), ca. The porcelain statuette and vase add a touch of chinoiserie. The manifestation of the Biblical cherub became the mischievous, sometimes naughty putti in paintings and the decorative arts of the Rococo time. It is said that Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, highly disapproved of the Rococo extravagance. Rococo's popularity was at its height towards the middle of the 18th century, fading out by the end in favour of Neoclassicism. Neoclassicism was championed by the successive Napoleonic governments, and overrode Rococo’s past dominance. The French people abolished the monarchy in 1792, and both King Louis XVI and his wife, Marie Antoinette, were beheaded. Rococo style developed as an alternative to the highly restrictive Baroque Style and celebrated sophistication, elegance and, asymmetrical and ornamental designs. Additionally, Far Eastern themes became popular in Rococo, especially Chinoiserie. Rococo describes a type of art and architecture that began in France in the mid-1700s. Rococo describes a type of art and architecture that began in France in the mid-1700s. The Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo is one of the northernmost Rococo buildings, Rococo staircase in Gruber Mansion, Slovenia, Integrated rococo carving, stucco and fresco at Zwiefalten. Paintings with allegorical subject matter were common by artists who were not bound to aristocratic rule. "The Reason which had begun to occupy such an important place in the philosophy of the time," Hamlin writes, "has become the guiding light of architecture.". Generations grew up in France believing in Absolutism, that the King was empowered by God. Some faces are distinct and some are blurred; some have their backs turned toward the viewer, while others are engaged. Creamy and pastel-like colours were used for paintings, unlike the darker shades in Baroque art. Shown here is a marquetry detail from the Minerva and Diana commode by Thomas Chippendale, 1773, considered by some to be the English cabinet-maker's finest work. Famous Rococo artists include Boucher, Watteau and Fragonard, amongst several others. Disney's candlestick character Lumiere in particular looks like the work of French goldsmith Juste-Aurèle Meissonnier (1695-1750), whose iconic candélabre, c. 1735 was often imitated. Pot pourri is a bunch of nice smelling leaves and plants that are put into a small vase to make a nice smell. Some wear bright clothing and others appear darkened as if they were escapees from a 17th century Rembrandt painting. He also produced other brilliant works such as ‘Portrait of Madame Pompadour’ and ‘Nude on a Sofa.' A stylized version of an acanthus leaf is a popular recurring pattern. Jean-Honore Fragonard (1732-1806), a student of Boucher, is well-known for creating the quintessential Rococo painting—The Swing c. 1767. Another Rococo art sculputre is the Sèvres pot-pourri vase in the shape of a ship made by Jean-Claude Chambellan Duplessis in Paris, in 1757. The original painting hanging in London's National Gallery personifies the four virtues on the left—fortitude, justice, temperance, and prudence. The Rococo Art Movement is discussed below. By the 1500s, the region had become a destination for Christian believers in healing miracles, and local religious leaders encouraged and perpetuated the draw of outside pilgrims. Architects such as Nicolas Pineau popularized the art in France and by the 1730s the style had spread to the sculpting and painting disciplines. The palace named for her near St. Petersburg was begun in 1717 by her husband, Peter the Great. The Rococo period in Europe is also a period when America's Founding Fathers were born—George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams. Allegories of astronomy and geography. French furniture made between 1715 and 1723, before Louis XV came of age, is generally called French Régence—not to be confused with the English Regency, which occurred about a century later. We believe art has the power to transform lives and to build understanding across cultures. Antoine Watteau, Pilgrimage on the Isle of Cythera (1717, Louvre) captures the frivolity and sensuousness of Rococo painting. Les Plaisirs du Bal or Pleasures of the Ball (Detail) by Jean Antoine Watteau, c. 1717. Professor Talbot Hamlin, FAIA, of Columbia University, has written that the 18th century was transformational in the way we live—that the homes of the 17th century are museums today, but dwellings of the 18th century are still functional residences, practically built to a human scale and designed for convenience. Outside of France, the style was soon embraced in Germany and Austria, and then spread into Italy and England. Upon the death of King Louis XIV, the notion of the "divine right of kings" came under question and a new secularism was unveiled. Catherine Palace Near St. Petersburg, Russia. Highly decorative walls and ceiling in an oval chamber, looking up toward an ornate chandelier. Rococo art and architecture carried a strong sense of theatricality and drama, influenced by stage design. One of the most famous Rococo painters was Antoine Watteau. Dominikus Zimmerman used his stucco- and marble-working artistry to build the lavish, ornate sanctuary within the somewhat simple, oval architecture, as he had first done in Steinhausen. Rococo heavily popularized the use of portraits. François Boucher, Le Déjeuner, (1739, Louvre), shows a rocaille interior of a French bourgeois family in the 18th century.