Wheat farming, by contrast, takes about half the amount of work and depends on rainfall rather than irrigation, meaning that farmers don’t need to collaborate with their neighbours and can focus on tending their own crops. Over the past two decades, Western nations such as the US, UK and Australia have become increasingly infatuated with education in East Asia. Swamiji: There is something at the back of it. Since the 'discovery' of eastern philosophy by western explorers and scholars in the 18th and 19th centuries CE, there has been an arbitrary division maintained, especially in colleges and universities, between 'western philosophy' and 'eastern philosophy' as though these two systems present radically different views of the world. It is for this reason that Hokkaido proves to be so fascinating. But this thirst for self-validation also manifests in overconfidence, with many experiments showing that Weird participants are likely to overestimate their abilities. Do you know Freud's psychology? Let anybody say something is wrong. License. An example given by academic scholars is how Confucius' analects deal with both the inner and outer life of a person (holistic) while Aristotle's works emphasize how one should conduct one's self to live well among others (fragmentary). So, I am asking why you raised this question of Self, when It is not a part of your curriculum of studies? Kava tea, a form of holistic medicine, is an extract drawn from the Piper methysticum plant found in the South Pacific. I should introduce you to some study, and you will see what a tremendous difference it makes in thinking. Swamiji: That shows the poverty of thinking. Nisbett points out that Western philosophers emphasised freedom and independence, whereas Eastern traditions like Taoism tended to focus on concepts of unity. Newly-married Western couples usually live together before they get married. So, you can handle it without affecting yourself, or your having anything to do with the world outside. Also known as “alternative medicine,” this practice can include a variety of spiritual activities such as meditation, acupuncture, and tai chi. Swamiji: You ask Freud whether he is existing. A handpicked selection of stories from BBC Future, Earth, Culture, Capital, Travel and Autos, delivered to your inbox every Friday. Beginning in Ancient Greece and ancient Rome, Western culture continued to develop with Christianity during the middle ages, nourished by the experiments of Enlightenment and discoveries of science and spread itself throughout the world between the 16th and 20th centuries as a result of globalization and human migration. Other staff members are defined by the size and seclusion of their areas. “The stillness of death reigned over this magnificent scene,” he later wrote. Tell me. In other words, whoever complains or makes the loudest noise will get the attention. An organic influence is something like the influence of the whole body on the limbs of the body. What is it made of? Like most East Asian countries, Japan as a whole tends to have a more collectivist and holistic mind-set. There is no division between eastern or western philosophy when it comes to the most basic questions of what it means to be a human being. In other words, it provides a natural, healthy and legal ‘high’ to the drinker. Eastern culture is the ensemble of beliefs, customs and traditions that distinguishes the people of eastern part of the world, made up of the Far East, West Asia, Central Asia, North Asia and South Asia. Again, you are coming to psychology. And more than that, what do you find in a human being? More likely it’s down to the parents or the student themselves. Here are five cultural differences in thinking and perception between the East and West. An advantage of western medicine is that it is made effective quickly. Whereas in the East, there is no need for children to leave the family home. What Do Dreams about Killing Someone Mean, According to Psychology? In 2010, an influential article in the journal Behavioral and Brain Sciences reported that the vast majority of psychological subjects had been “western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic”, or ‘Weird’ for short. Let's think for a moment. Here managers and senior staff mingle with ordinary workers. And also Freud? Our thinking may have even been shaped by the kinds of crops our ancestors used to farm, and a single river may mark the boundaries between two different cognitive styles. Mainly based on Christianity, one sees oneself as an element of the divine and life in service of God. It is a kind of illusion for psychologists. Mark, Emily. It must be handled in the manner in which you handle yourself. The roots of the Western culture has its origins in Europe and carries a heritage of Germanic, Celtic, Hellenic, Slavic, Jewish, Latin, and other ethnic and linguistic groups. To demonstrate, an old Japanese proverb advises: ‘The nail that sticks out gets hammered down.’. Now, why are you bringing this question to me? It is the purely physically bound psychological self. In Western schools, students are contributors to their own education. Swamiji: The body is separated from their mind and heart in every Westerner? • Eastern culture uses the spiritual and missionary approach of searching inside oneself for answers through meditation whereas western culture takes on a pragmatic and emotional approach in searching outside oneself through research and analysis. They also asked people to draw a diagram demonstrating their relationships to their friends and associates: people in individualistic societies tend to draw themselves as bigger than their friends, whereas collectivists tend to make everyone the same size. Generally speaking - there are many exceptions - people in the West tend to be more individualist, and people from Asian countries like India, Japan or China tend to be more collectivist. They settle for a partner that they have a deep friendship with. A holistic thinker, in contrast, would say “train” and “track”, since they are focusing on the functional relationship between the two – one item is essential for the other’s job. Another (counterintuitive) idea is that the contrasting mind-sets are an evolved response to germs. Alex Mesoudi at the University of Exeter recently profiled the thinking styles of British Bangladeshi families in East London. Swamiji: Why should you? Do you know of the Damocles Sword? Swamiji: Let the Self not be there at all. It exists as a corollary followed from the observation of many particulars. His motto - "Boys, be ambitious" - exemplifies the pioneer mindset that lingers to this day (Credit: Alamy). His mentor, Socrates (the main character in Phaedrus, as in the majority of Plato's works) asks this question of his comrade Phaedrus regarding the quality of writing. Swamiji: I cannot talk to you much. Eastern medicine takes an entirely different approach from western, relying on the bond between mind, body and spirit. In addition, Eastern people do not get married just for love. Almost all the people he questioned are not directly involved in farming, of course – but the historical traditions of their regions are still shaping their thinking. In addition to its famous calming qualities, kava tea holds medicinal qualities. Hence different parts of the world feature different cultures that vary very much from one another. What is the harm if nobody dies? But I am saying that in the elementary schools now... Swamiji: The European way of thinking is, as they usually call it, empiricist. If you know any more please do let us know! Some of the most notable differences revolved around the concepts of “individualism” and “collectivism”; whether you consider yourself to be independent and self-contained, or entwined and interconnected with the other people around you, valuing the group over the individual. Swamiji: Rationality cannot contradict intuitive perception, though its validity is accepted. Could these differences translate to a more collectivist or individualistic mindset? It’s important to emphasise that these are just broad trends across vast numbers of people; there will have been a spectrum within each population studied. Swamiji: Everybody is happy; who is not happy? They do not use imagery or visualisation as thinking processes. Here is the great difference between Western thinking and Eastern thinking. It has been used by the islanders for both ceremonial and medicinal purposes for thousands of years. Swamiji: Where are you teaching – in a college or school? Philosophers from the east have always been engaged in exactly the same pursuit as their counterparts in the west. Mark, Emily. Additionally, both practices have their calling. Visitor: I am saying that It should be. Visitor: True. Swamiji: It is based on sensory observation, and on inference based on that perception through the sense organs, believing in nothing that cannot be proved rationally. For example, in the West, we admire the ‘self-made man’. Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms. In the West, it is a rite of passage for children to move out at a certain age. In line with this theory, recent psychological studies have shown that the states at the edge of the frontier (such as Montana) tend to score higher on measures of individualism. Everyone knows about the “better than average” effect. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Compared to other kinds of agriculture, rice farming demands greater cooperation within a community, with intricate irrigation systems spanning many plots (Credit: Getty Images). Family plays an extremely important role in Eastern society. Actually, psychologists never talk of the Self. Reality. Particularly when it comes to living arrangements. If many horses are there, there is a general universal principle called horseness, etc. Who would like to be a slave of a law of somebody? In fact, arranged marriages are a tradition that is alive and well in the East. This is virtually unheard of in the West. And, the Western mind has an aversion, it seems, to "Know thyself.". It is something philosophical. Mo-Ti, some claim, aims at a holistic understanding of one's self and one's surroundings while a western philosopher like Plato emphasizes specific goals one should strive for in discovering what is true and real in life. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Here is the great difference between Western thinking and Eastern thinking. Even so, the subtle variation between individual countries suggests that many other surprising factors are also at work. It is a consciousness, a principle of awareness. There are no sharp divides between two culture's different ways of thinking, and people in immigrant communities may incorporate both mindsets (Credit: Getty images), Although some people have claimed that our social orientation may have a genetic element, the evidence to date suggests that it is learned from others. “Americans tend to draw themselves very large,” Talhelm says. There will always be one faction that believes that one practice is more powerful than the other, or that one practice is more detrimental than the other. The fundamental purpose of philosophy is to find meaning in one's life and purpose to one's path, and there is no major difference between eastern and western philosophy according to that understanding. When asked about their competence, for instance, 94% of American professors claimed they were “better than average”. There must be a point in it. Piper methysticum is Latin for “intoxicating pepper”, as it is a member of the pepper culinary family. And, I would like to hear what you think about what is important for me to remember when I am trying to teach Americans, Westerners, to think creatively. As far as beverages go, kava tea is on the sweeter side, offering a smooth and almost bittersweet aftertaste.