Vitellius ruled until December of 69 when he was assassinated by soldiers dispatched by Vespasian. With the construction of the Colosseum, Vespasian's reign as emperor will continue to stand the test of time. With the Senate, despite the discords of the early months, Vespasian succeeded in maintaining friendly relations. Construction projects bore inscriptions praising Vespasian and condemning previous emperors. The best source on Vespasian is Tacitus's Histories, but it breaks off after the first year. Vespasian ingratiated himself with the ruling emperor, Caligula (Gaius Caesar); and in the next reign, that of Claudius, he won the favour of the powerful freedman Narcissus. He dated his powers to July 1, when the troops had acclaimed him, thus flouting constitutional precedent and contradicting even the behaviour of his rival Vitellius, who had awaited confirmation by the Senate. [20][21][18][19][22][23][24], In early 70 Vespasian was still in Egypt, the source of Rome's grain supply, and had not yet left for Rome. He established the new, Flavian dynasty. At the same time he was astute and ambitious; he built up a powerful party quickly at the outset, and many of his initial appointments were dictated by nepotism or the desire to reward past services. I have been wondering why she killed herself. Although Vespasian is said to have hesitated before following his brother into the Senate, his career was in no sense retarded; for, after military service in Thrace and a quaestorship in Crete, he reached the praetorship in the earliest year allowed him by law, namely ad 39, the year in which his elder son, Titus, was born. The Romans Would Tax Your Urine", "Money Does Not Stink: The Urine Tax of Ancient Rome", "Dion Cassius: Histoire Romaine : livre LXVIII (bilingue)", "At Least You Don't Pay Urine Tax… (1st C AD) – Ancient History Blog", "C. Suetonius Tranquillus, Divus Vespasianus, chapter 24", "Plus de 3 M$ pour une douzaine de " vespasiennes " modernes", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vespasian&oldid=987075782, Characters in works by Geoffrey of Monmouth, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from February 2011, All articles needing additional references, Pages using columns with the default column width, Articles with disputed statements from December 2011, Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text, Articles needing additional references from April 2016, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 22 December 69 – 24 June 79 (9 years and 6 months). Judea had been rebelling since 66. These successes earned him triumphal regalia (ornamenta triumphalia) on his return to Rome. While in Egypt, he visited the Temple of Serapis where he reportedly experienced a vision. In modern Romance languages, urinals are named after him (for example, vespasiano in Italian, and vespasienne in French),[53] probably in reference to a tax he placed on urine collection (useful due to its ammoniac content; see Pay toilet). Corruption was so rife that it was almost expected that a governor would come back from these appointments with his pockets full. © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. According to Suetonius, a prophecy ubiquitous in the Eastern provinces claimed that from Judaea would come the future rulers of the world. On his return to Rome in about 30 AD, he obtained a post in the vigintivirate, the minor magistracies, most probably in one of the posts in charge of street cleaning. She came to co-rule with her Father King Ptolemy XII Auletes, even though she had two older sisters.… Feeling death coming on, he reportedly called out "Vae, puto deus fio." 7 0 Reply. Read more. {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | Although some of the funds made their way into his pockets, he did sponsor the arts with some of the money and patronized poets and teachers. Vespasian was a Roman emperor (69–79 CE) whose fiscal reforms and consolidation of the empire made his reign a period of political stability and funded a vast Roman building program which included the Temple of Peace, the Colosseum, and restoration of the capitol. He had a successful military career, commanding the second legion in the invasion of Britain in 43 AD and conquering the south west of England. Domitian had been overbearing and irresponsible in the months before his father’s return and was kept firmly in a junior position during the remaining years. But Helvidius and his friends had already expressed general misgivings about Vespasian’s government in the early months of 70. There’s actual proof for that… her and Antony’s tombs were directly beside each other. His biographer Suetonius claims that throughout Vespasian’s reign his firm policy was “first to restore stability to the tottering state, and then to adorn it.” But, despite his buildings and his generosity to needy friends, he probably bequeathed a substantial surplus of public money to his successors. Otho's supporters, looking for another candidate to support, settled on Vespasian. In Britain more important advances were made; the kingdom of Brigantia in northern England was incorporated in the province, the pacification of Wales was completed, and in 78 the general Gnaeus Agricola began the seven years’ governorship that was to lead Roman arms into the Scottish Highlands. To ensure his base he had fought a brief campaign against the Jews in midsummer; but he now sent Mucianus with an expeditionary force to Dyrrhachium (Durazzo), where a fleet was instructed to meet him. His appeal was followed by Vespasian's official proclamation as Emperor in early July. He increased, and sometimes doubled, provincial taxation and revoked immunities granted to various Greek-speaking provinces and cities. If you are looking to learn more about the Roman Empire and its many leaders, this lesson has information on several emperors and their relationships. With Titus there was cause for alarm when his troops, after his victory in Judaea, asked him to take them to Italy; but he returned alone. Did you know… We have over 220 college Not sure what college you want to attend yet? The legions of Egypt, Judaea, Syria and then the Danube all declared for him, and he sent his commander Primus ahead to secure Italy on his behalf. Mucianus started off Vespasian's rule with tax reform that was to restore the empire's finances. He reclaimed public land in Italy from squatters and instituted various new taxes, including the diversion to Rome’s treasury of the tax paid by Jews of the Diaspora to the Temple at Jerusalem. He became commander of the Legio II Augusta, which took part in the invasion of Britain in 43. imaginable degree, area of [10] His early performance was so unsuccessful that Emperor Caligula reportedly stuffed handfuls of muck down his toga to correct the uncleaned Roman streets, formally his responsibility. The first task was to restore discipline to the armies after the events of 68–69. The following year he was elected quaestor and served in Creta et Cyrenaica. [33] Many modern historians note the increased amount of propaganda that appeared during Vespasian's reign. However, Vespasian used his time in North Africa making friends instead of money, something that would be far more valuable in the years to come. Her full name ‘Cleopatra Thea Philopator’ which plainly means ‘the Goddess Cleopatra, the Beloved of Her Father’. Vespasian distinguished himself in the Roman military. After completion of a term in the vigintivirate, Vespasian was entitled to stand for election as quaestor; a senatorial office. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? 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Historical biographies of the Egyptian Queen suggest she claimed the throne by violence. He later rose in the senate to become consul in 51 AD and governor of Africa a decade later. After participating in crucial early battles on the rivers Medway and Thames, he was sent to reduce the south west, penetrating through the modern counties of Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dorset, Somerset, Devon and Cornwall with the probable objectives of securing the south coast ports and harbours along with the tin mines of Cornwall and the silver and lead mines of Somerset. Announcing our NEW encyclopedia for Kids. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. Vespasian eventually restored order and grain shipments to Rome resumed. Quintilian is said to have been the first public teacher who enjoyed this imperial favor. Pingback: Cleopatra: You think you know, but you have no idea. Josephus interpreted the prophecy to denote Vespasian and his appointment as emperor in Judea.[13][14]. Vitellius hastily arranged a peace with Antonius, but the Emperor's Praetorian Guard forced him to retain his seat. Jerusalem was taken in August 70 AD and the Jewish temple was destroyed. While in Egypt he had been concerned with raising money; and his exactions, coupled with sales of imperial estates to speculators, caused great discontent among the Egyptians.