Also, an Alam is decorated by plumes and fine embroidered silks and brocades. Ali’s son al-Hussein refused to accept Yazid’s legitimacy and fighting between the two broke out. Al-Maqrizi (d. 845/1442), a medieval Egyptian historian, notes that in the Fatimi empire the Day of ʿAashura was marked as a day of grief and markets were shut.[10]. Isa(as) sat down and began to weep. It is considered to be the holiest month after Ramzan and one of the four sacred months in the Islamic calendar. In early Islamic history some Muslims supported Ali, cousin of the Prophet and the fourth caliph (temporal and spiritual ruler) of the Muslim community. The sunnis rightly avoid getting into these habits out of fear of distortion and innovation in the religion of Allah. Nakhl is a wooden (lit. News of Imam Husayn ibn Ali's martyrdom was spread by Imam Zain-ul-Abideen, who succeeded Imam Husayn as the Shia Imam, via sermons and speeches throughout Iraq, Syria and Hejaz. These rituals include the memorial services (majalis al-ta'ziya), the visitation of Husayn's tomb in Karbala particularly on the occasion of the tenth day of Ashura and the fortieth day after the battle (Ziyarat Ashura and ziyarat al-Arba'in), the public mourning processions (al-mawakib al-husayniyya or the representation of the battle of Karbala in the form of a play (the shabih), and the flagellation (tatbir). imagine dragons - i'm so sorry 1 hour. For Sunnis, Ashura marks the day that Moses and his followers (i.e the children of Israel) were saved from Pharaoh by God by creating a path in the Red Sea. Rawda is one of the Shia Iranian mourning rituals to commemorate the death of Husayn ibn Ali and his followers – especially it is the kind of public lamentation. Al-Hussein, accompanied by his family and a few fighters, faced Yazid’s army. [11][12] The 20th Musta'li Isma'ili Imam, Al-Amir bi-Ahkam Allah (526/1132), presided over a congregation on the Day of ʿAashura seated on an un-cushioned chair made of palm branches. [36], One of the most important and symbolic objects used at mourning rituals is the Alam. He Then said: "this is the land on, which the son of the Prophet Ahmad(s) shall be killed. In the ninth century, lamentation and wailing became propounded as a mourning tradition. The previous record of this dramatic act reaches back to the seventeenth century practice in the Caucasus and in Azerbaijan, and was observed in the nineteenth century by the Shia Twelvers in central and southern cities of Iran and the Arab world. Nonetheless, taziyas continued to exist in Iran on a smaller scale especially in more rural and traditional areas. The Shia Muslim community mourn Imam Hussain Ali's death by flagellating themselves with sharp objects on Muharram. Shia Muslims mourn during Muharram, although Sunnis do so to a much lesser extent. Why do Muslims mourn on Muharram? The death of Imam al-Hussein is considered by the Shia community as a symbol of humanity’s struggle against injustice, tyranny and oppression. Muharram observances are carried out in countries with a sizable Shia population. Family members and companions accompanying him were either killed or subjected to humiliation. However, in recent years, some Shia clerics have been discouraging the bloodletting, saying it creates a backward and negative image of their community. While in battle, the children of the camp were anxiously watching the alam (Arabic and Persian ʿalam, pl. Theatrical groups that specialize in taziya are called taziya groups. Archers then started bombarding Abbas with arrows which pierced the water skin, bringing him down from his horse with the alam falling to the ground. Hosayn! In South Asia, literary and musical genres produced by both Shias and Sunnis, that have been inspired by the Battle of Karbala are performed during the month, such as marsiya, noha and soaz. [14], As Chelkowski said, in fourth century in Baghdad, contemporaneous with the reigns of Sulton Muizz ad-Dawla of the Shia Buyid dynasty, the first public mourning ritual happened, and the market was closed by order of him on day of Ashura. [6] Following the battle of Karbala, Muhammad's granddaughter Zaynab bint Ali and sister of Imam Husayn, began mourning for the fallen and making speeches against Imam Husayn ibn Ali's opponents: Ibn Ziyad and Yazid I. [7], According to the History of the Prophets and Kings, when Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin gave the sermon in presence of Yazid, he let them hold the mourning of Husain ibn Ali for three days in a formal manner. Here some photos of how Muslims mourn on Muharram: Covid pandemic offers a chance to construct better buildings for future. While the Shias flagellate, the Sunni Muslims fast on 9th, 10th and 11th day of Muharram as it is believed that fasting on these days is a way to make amends for the sins of the coming year.